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Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04

This is an ultrasonic sound based non-contact range finder. The device send sonar burst of ultrasonic sound waves from the transmitter end, ultrasonic sound is sound waves of frequency more than 20 KHz (not audible to human ears). Dolphins and bats use this principle to detect obstacle in front of them. The receiver end of the sensor detects received deflected sound signal from any obstacle or wall, in this way one can use the time taken by the sensor in sending and receiving the sound signals for the calculation of the distance of the wall or obstacle from the sensor. The sensor has 4 pins to be used with any microcontroller board. The pin descriptions are as follows: Trigger, Echo, Vcc, Gnd.  The sensor works at DC 5 volt and when a pulse of few microseconds are send to the trigger pin, the sensor sends burst of eight cycles of 40KHz ultrasonic sound waves. The sensor can detect object as close as 2 cm and maximum upto 400 cm. The accuracy of the sensor could be as possible as 3mm.

The sensor finds application in mostly range finder, depth calculation, vehicle parking systems and obstacle navigation robots.

Technical specification:

Supply Voltage5 V DC
Supply Current15mA
Range2cm to 4 m
Measuring Angle15 degree
Trigger Input Signal10uS TTL pulse
No. of pins4
Flex Sensor 2.2 inch 125k Ohms

A simple flex sensor 2.2" in length. As the sensor is flexed, the resistance across the sensor increases.




  • Angle Displacement Measurement
  • Bends and Flexes physically with motion device
  • Possible Uses, Robotics, Gaming (Virtual Motion), Computer Peripherals.
  • Simple Construction




  • Flat Resistance: 25K Ohms
  • Resistance Tolerance: ±30%
  • Bend Resistance Range: 45K to 125K Ohms
  • Power Rating: 0.50 Watts continuous. 1 Watt Peak
  • Temperature Range: -35°C to +80°C
Photo Interrupter IR Module

The rotary encoder can count the pulse outputting times during the process of its rotation in positive and reverse direction of rotating. The counting is unlimited, not like potential counting. It can be restored to initial state to count from 0.




  • Power Supply: 5V
  • Interface: Digital
  • Size: 30*20mm
  • Weight: 7g
Rotary Encoder

       It’s a high quality 30-pulse encoder, with detents and a nice feel to it. It is panel mountable for placement in a box, or can be plugged into a breadboard (just cut/bend the two mechanical side tabs). This encoder also has a push-button built into it so you can press onto the knob to close a separate switch. One side has a 3 pin connector (ground and two coding pins) and the other side has two pins for a normally-open switch.

       Rotary encoders are useful as rotation sensors or selectors and look similar to potentiometers. These rotary encoders rotate all the way around continuously, and are divided up into 30 segments. Each segment has a click-y feeling to it, and each movement clockwise or counter-clockwise causes the two switches to open and close. There is no way to know what the current position is - instead we would need to use a microcontroller to count how many clicks left or right it has been turned.

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